When the model experiment on the distillation of petroleum is conducted using the comprehensive chemistry/biotechnology experiments system, the glass equipment clearly stands out against the dark background of the large-format base plate. The strong contrast between this ...
All gases may be considered, to a first approximation, to obey
the ideal gas equation which relates the pressure p,
volume V, temperature T and amount of
substance n of a gas. The amount of gas n is
expressed as the number of moles and is equal to m /
M where m ...
Gases are condensing when they are cooled and at high
pressure. In this experiment butane is condensed by cooling it
to ca. -15 °C. In the second part of the
experiment butane is condensed by compressing it.
The separation power of a rectification (fractionating) column
can be determined using an appropriate binary mixture whose
equilibrium composition is measured in the distillation flask and
in the domed glass head of the distillation apparatus. The number
of theoretical trays can ...
Haloalkanes react with magnesium to the so-called Grignard
reagents in accordance with the general formula RMgX. With X =
bromide or iodide, the reaction works best. Chlorides are usually
more inert and require higher temperatures and longer reaction
times for the conversion. ...
Unlike the other alkali-organyls, lithium organyls - with the
exception of methyllithium - show a stronger covalent behaviour.
They dissolve rather well in organic solvents, such as diethyl
ether, tetrahydrofuran, and alkanes, and they are relatively stable
in these ...
Bromine is polarised and, thereby, activated by zinc chloride as
a Lewis acid. It can attach itself in an ionic manner to the
toluene nucleus via several complex intermediate stages. Following
a dehydrobromination, bromotoluene is formed, i.e. the product ...
This experiment examins the formation of p-tolune-sulfonic acid. The sulfonation of toluene with concentrated sulfuric acid is an electrophilic aromatic substitution. This means, the sulphonation of toluene is an electrophilic substitution at the aromatic compound. The ...
In the first part of the experiment, benzaldehyde
disproportionates under the effect of alkalis to alcohol-soluble
benzyl alcohol and water-soluble benzoic acid that precipitates
when the aqueous solution is acidified. In the second part,
benzaldehyde reacts with ethylene glycol ...
The discussion of healthy nutrition focuses on the fat content
of foodstuffs. For this reason, it is important to know the exact
fat content of individual foodstuffs. The experiment shown here
presents a method for the quantitative determination of the fat
content of foodstuffs ...
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